引用符

・引用符は、書かれた言葉や話された言葉を引用するときに使われる。
・二重引用符を使うのを基本とする。

[正]Mary said, "I'd like to go to Japan."
[誤]Mary said, 'I'd like to go to Japan.'

・イギリス英語においては、シングルの引用符を使うのを基本とする。

[誤]Mary said, "I'd like to go to Japan."
[英]Mary said, 'I'd like to go to Japan.'

・引用された文の中に引用符が使われる場合、引用文にシングルの引用符が使われ、引用文の中の引用文に二重引用符が使われる。

[正]'Mary said, "Please don't go,"' recalled Ken.
[誤]"Mary said, 'Please don't go,'" recalled Ken.

・イギリス英語においては、引用された文の中に引用符が使われる場合、引用文に二重引用符が使われ、引用文の中の引用文にシングルの引用符が使われる。

[誤]'Mary said, "Please don't go,"' recalled Ken.
[正]"Mary said, 'Please don't go,'" recalled Ken.

・引用文を示すには、引用文の前にカンマを打つ。

[正]Mary said, "I'd like to go to Japan."
[誤]Mary said "I'd like to go to Japan."
[誤]Is it strange to say, "I ate half of the pie"?
[正]Is it strange to say "I ate half of the pie"?

・引用文の最初の文字は大文字にする。
・引用したのが文の一部である場合には、小文字にする。

[正]The teacher said, "The semester is already half over."
[誤]The teacher said, "the semester is already half over."
[正]The teacher told her that her paper was "excellent."
[誤]The teacher told her that her paper was "Excellent."
[正]"The trouble with Ken," his boss said, "is his lack of self-confidence."
[誤]"The trouble with Ken," his boss said, "Is his lack of self-confidence."
[正]"The trouble with Ken is his lack of self-confidence," his boss said. "In fact, he is always asking me questions."
[誤]"The trouble with Ken is his lack of self-confidence," his boss said. "in fact, he is always asking me questions."

・ピリオドやカンマは引用符の内側に打つ。

[正]Mary said, "I'd like to go to Japan."
[誤]Mary said, "I'd like to go to Japan".
[誤]Mary said, "I'd like to go to Japan.".

・イギリス英語においては、ピリオドやカンマは引用符の外側に打つ。

[英]Mary said, 'I'd like to go to Japan'.
[英]'I don't know what happened', Mary said.

・文が引用文で始まる場合、引用文と非引用文をカンマで区切る。
・しかし、引用文が疑問符や感嘆符や感嘆符で終わる場合は、カンマを打たない。

[正]"I don't know what happened," Tom said.
[誤]"I don't know what happened", Tom said.
[誤]"I don't know what happened" Tom said.
[正]"What happened?" he asked.
[誤]"What happened?" He asked.
[誤]"What happened?", he asked.
[正]"How beautiful!" she said.
[誤]"How beautiful!" She said.
[誤]"How beautiful!", she said.

・コロンやセミコロンは、引用符の外側に打つ。

[正]Mary said, "I'd like to go to Europe"; however she had made no plans.
[誤]Mary said, "I'd like to go Europe;" however she had made no plans.
[誤]Mary said, "I'd like to go Europe," however she had made no plans.
[正]Mary said, "I'd like to go Europe," but she had made no plans.

※二つの文を繋ぐには、4番目の文のように接続詞を使わなければならない。3番目の文のように副詞を使って繋ぐと"comma splice"という文法的な誤りになるため、1番目の文のようにセミコロンを使って分割する。

・文全体が疑問文や感嘆文ではない場合、疑問符や感嘆符は引用符の内側に打つ。

[正]Mary politely asked, "Would you like coffee or tea?"
[誤]Mary politely asked, "Would you like coffee or tea"?
[誤]What do you mean by "dress code?"
[正]What do you mean by "dress code"?

・引用文が文の最後に来て、文の終わりを示す終止符や疑問符、感嘆符が、引用文と文全体で同じ場合、文全体のものを省略する。

[正]Did Mary ask, "Would you like coffee or tea?"
[誤]Did Mary ask, "Would you like coffee or tea?"?
[正]Mary said, "I'd like to go to Japan."
[誤]Mary said, "I'd like to go to Japan.".

・引用文が文の最後に来て、文の終わりを示す終止符や疑問符、感嘆符が、引用文と文全体で異なる場合、優先順位は、感嘆符、疑問符、終止符の順になる。

[正]Mary yelled, "I refuse to go back into the hospital!"
[誤]Mary yelled, "I refuse to go back into the hospital!".
[正]Did Mary yell, "I refuse to go back into the hospital!"
[誤]Did Mary yell, "I refuse to go back into the hospital!"?
[正]I left a messages saying, "I can't make it today!"
[誤]I left a messages saying, "I can't make it today!".

・引用文であることが"Mary said" や"Mary asked"のような表現で明示されない場合、コロンを使う。

[正]We never doubted her word: "I'll try my best."
[誤]We never doubted her word: "I'll try my best."

《引用以外の用法》

・引用符は、皮肉を込めて言っている言葉を示すのに使われる。

[正]It is a symbol of "progress" in North Korea.
[誤]This data shows that we have made great "progress" in controlling inflation.

・引用符は、言葉そのものを指していることを示すのに使われる。

[正]"Except" and "accept" are frequently confused.
[誤]He "accepted" the invitation two days ago.

・引用符は、新聞や雑誌の記事のタイトル、詩やエッセイ、短編、歌のタイトル、本の篇、章、節などの見出し、テレビやラジオの連続物の1回分のテーマのなどを示すのに使われる。但し、篇、章、節などが数字で示される場合、引用符は使われない。
・新聞や雑誌の名前、一つの本として出版された詩やエッセイ、短編集のタイトル、歌のCDなどのタイトル、テレビやラジオの番組名は、冠詞や前置詞以外の単語を大文字にし、イタリック体にすることによって示し、引用符は使わない。

[正]Beethoven's Fifth was not so famous as the Third, the "Eroica."
[誤]The "Fifth" was not so famous as the Third, the "Eroica."
[正]Harry Potter is a series of seven fantasy novels written by J. K. Rowling.
[誤]"Harry Potter" is a series of seven fantasy novels written by J. K. Rowling.
[正]The first novel was Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone.
[誤]The first novel was "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone."