関係代名詞の主格

・主語の役割をする関係代名詞のこと。
関係代名詞先行詞
who人・名前が付けられた動物
which名前が付けられていない動物・物
that名前が付けられていない動物・物・形容詞の最上級で修飾される人

・人や名前が付けられた動物が先行詞の場合"who"を使い、名前が付けられていない動物や物が先行詞の場合"which"か"that"を使う。
・シカゴマニュアルなどの主要な参考文献に、"which"は非制限用法に、"that"は制限用法に使うと書いてあるが、同意しない言語学者も少なくない。

[正]The boy who saved the little girl was praised.
[正]Pochi, who saved the little girl, was praised.
[誤]I saw a dog who was playing with a cat.
[?]I saw a dog which was playing with a cat.
[正]I saw a dog, which was playing with a cat.
[正]I saw a dog that was playing with a cat.

・先行詞が人の場合、"who"を使う。("that"を人に使うと「人以下」というニュアンスが出るので、アメリカ人は人に使うのを避ける傾向がある)

[正]The boy who came from America stayed at my home for three days.
[誤]The boy that came from America stayed at my home for three days.

・先行詞が人でも、物理的存在ではなく、能力や特質について述べる場合、"that"が使われることがある。

[正]He is the kind of person that will never betray you.
[正]He is the kind of person who will never betray you.

・先行詞が人でも、形容詞の最上級で修飾されると、"who"ではなく、"that"を使う。

[正]He is the tallest man that I've ever seen.
[誤]He is the tallest man who I've ever seen.
[正]He sat in the biggest chair that was in the house.
[誤]He sat in the biggest chair which was in the house.

・先行詞が人でも、"all"、"any(thing)"、"every(thing)"、"few"、"little"、"many" "much"、"no(thing)"、"none"、"some(thing)"などで修飾されると、"that"を使うことがある。

[正]He talked with all the people that came to the party?
[正]He talked with all the people who came to the party?
[正]I tried to sell it to any person who came to the shop.
[正]I tried to sell it to any person that came to the shop.
[正]He talked with everyone that came to the party?
[正]He talked with everyone who came to the party?

・"that"は制限用法でしか使えない。

[正]The dog that was playing with a cat looked happy.
[誤]The dog, that was playing with a cat, looked happy.
[正]The dog, which was playing with a cat, looked happy.

関係代名詞の主格の関連項目